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frac赵 2009-05-14 09:00

中东六个国家最近的增产措施SPE摘要

一.阿曼Oman
Paper one
Title Preparing a Fractured Carbonate Field for Steam Injection  
对裂缝型的碳酸盐岩油藏的注蒸汽研究
  Author B. Wassing, SPE, J. van Wunnik, SPE, G. Warrlich, A. Lamki, SPE, T. Johnson, J. Gittins, SPE, and M. Riyami, SPE, Petroleum Development Oman LLC  
  SPE  118792-MS  2008  96.96% Relevance  
Abstract
The subject field is a fractured carbonate reservoir located in the Ghaba Salt Basin in Oman containing heavy, viscous oil. The field was discovered in 1972 and has been producing since 1976 through a process of mainly fracture depletion and natural water-influx. Without the application of an EOR technique the recovery will be low as the processes that displace oil from the matrix reservoir rock are adversely affected by the rock and fluid properties, particularly the high oil viscosity. Following the success of the steam-assisted GOGD test in an analogous nearby field, the field is being screened for feasibility of this thermal recovery process. In the steam-assisted GOGD process the fracture network plays a dual role : as distribution system of crestally injected steam to heat up the oil in the matrix and as offtake point deeper down in the column where the oil collects in the fracture oil-rim, after having drained predominantly through the matrix. Critical data on the fracture network and thermal PVT properties are collected and integrated in dynamic models to assess the oil drainage rate under steam injection. In modeling the SA-GOGD process, care needs to be taken to correctly represent the effect of unevenly heated matrix blocks on the oil viscosity and hence drainage rates. Oil close to the steam filled fractures will heat up more quickly than in the center of the matrix blocks and the former will start to drain faster than the latter.
摘要
阿曼的Ghaba Salt盆地的一个裂缝型碳酸盐稠油油藏。1972年油田被发现,随着1976生产,裂缝中的油枯竭,地层水入侵。 由于没有采取EOR技术补救措施,,采收率非常低。油藏基质岩石和其中驱体出的原油,其岩石和流体性质,特别是原油的粘度,都受到了严重伤害。附近一个类似的油田,筛选使用热力提高采收率的可行性,随后用蒸汽协助GOGD测试,得到成功。在蒸汽协助GOGD过程,裂缝网格扮演一个双重角色:一边顶部注入蒸汽的分配体系加热基质中的油,一边在环柱中泄入到更低的地方,油在裂缝外缘汇集。在注入蒸汽之后,在动态模型中收集关于裂缝网络和热力PVT物性的重要数据来评估泄油能力 。在对SA-GOGD建模过程中,注意要正确地反应出基质岩石加热不均匀性对原油粘度和泄油速度的影响。而在充满蒸汽裂缝中的原油,比中心基质岩石的原油加热的速度要快,前者的泄油速度也比后者快.
Ignoring this effect and using viscosity values based on averaged temperatures and established viscosity-temperature relationship, as is usually done in dual permeability simulation, will underestimate the SA-GOGD drainage rates. This underestimation will increase with a larger difference between the cold and hot oil viscosity and is also more relevant to early times (economics). A new method has been developed to conserve the 1D-drainage rate of unevenly heated matrix blocks based on an effective or “pseudo” viscosity correlated with gridblock-averaged temperature.
如果忽略这个作用,并使用根据平均的温度和已经建立的黏温关系得到的黏度数值,(这个数值通常用在两种混合型渗透性模拟)将低估SA-GOGD泄油速率。这种低估将增加以冷和热油黏度之间的更大差距, 并且与早期时期(经济评价)也相关。根据有效的或者和格状区块平均温度有关的“假塑性”黏度,已经开发一种新的方法,保存受热不均匀基质岩石的一维泄油速率。

二.沙特阿拉伯Saudi Arabia
Title Simultaneous Acid Diversion and Water Control in Carbonate Reservoirs: A Case History From Saudi Arabia  
沙特阿拉伯的井史案例分析:碳酸盐岩油藏同时进行转向酸和控水处理技术
Author Ali A. Al-Taq, SPE, Hisham A. Nasr-El-Din, Jimmy K. Beresky, and Khalid M. Naimi, Saudi Aramco; and Leopoldo Sierra, SPE, and Larry Eoff, SPE, Halliburton  
SPE  106951-PA  2008  96.96% Relevance
Journal SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
Volume Volume 11, Number 5
Date October  2008
Pages pp. 882-891
Copyright 2008. Society of Petroleum Engineers


Preview Summary
Matrix acidizing and water control are usually addressed as two separate issues. Associative polymers can be used to simultaneously achieve effective acidizing and water control during a single treatment. A polymer-based treatment was applied in an offshore, perforated vertical well with two sets of perforations in a carbonate reservoir in Saudi Arabia. The acid treatment was needed to restore the productivity of the upper set of perforations and reduce water production from the lower set of perforations.
通常是将基质酸化和控水作为二个不同问题分别进行处理。 用单一手段处理作业期间,聚合物的运用就可以达到同时有效的酸化和控水的效果。 在近海沿岸运用了一种聚合物基进行处理作业,在沙特阿拉伯碳酸盐储层的直井中射二套孔眼, 酸处理是需要的恢复上部那套射孔孔眼的生产能力,下部那套射孔孔眼是为了减少出水量。

Experimental studies were carried out to investigate the potential use of associative polymers to control water mobility and act as an acid diverter. Coreflood experiments were conducted on reservoir cores at downhole conditions (temperature of 200°F and pressure of 3,500 psi). Extensive laboratory testing showed that associative polymers had no significant effect on the relative permeability to oil. However, the relative permeability to water was significantly reduced.
进行的实验研究调查了联合聚合物来控制水的流动性和作为酸化处理转换介质的潜在用途。岩心水驱试验是用储层岩心模拟井底条件处理的(温度华氏200度,压力3500psi)。大量的实验室测试结果显示,复配的聚合物对油的相对渗透率无显著影响。然而,水的相对渗透率将明显减小。
This paper presents a case history where an associative polymer was applied during matrix acid treatment of a damaged well. The treatment included two stages of associative polymer solutions and 20 wt% HCl with additives. Post-stimulation treatment production data showed that oil rate increased 11.18-fold, whereas water rate decreased 1.7-fold, resulting in a reduction in the water cut from 75 to 14 vol%.
本文讲述一个井史案例,将聚合物应用于受到伤害的井的基岩酸化处理。处理过程包括两个阶段:复配的聚合物溶液和含添加剂的20%(质量百分比)盐酸。增产措施处理后的生产数据显示,含油量增加11.18倍,而含水量减少1.7倍,结果造成了含水率从75%减小到14%。
The production logging tool (PLT) results indicated that the associative polymer was effective in diverting the acid into the oil producing zone. The upper set of perforations was producing most of the fluid, which further confirmed that the associative polymer significantly reduced water production from the lower zone.
生产测井工具结果显示复配的聚合物能够有效的把酸转向储层。上部孔眼生产出的大多数流体,更加进一步证实结合聚合物的使用极大减少了部分产层出水情况。



三.卡塔尔Qatar
Title Innovative Methods To Improve Carbonate Reservoirs Modeling Accuracy and Reliability  
使用创新的方法提高碳酸盐岩油藏描述的精确度和可靠性
  Author David Foulon, Total E&P Qatar; Louise den Boer, Total HQ France; Florence Vieban, Total E&P Qatar; and Rashed Noman, and Mohamed Labiadh, Qatar Petroleum  
  SPE  105203-MS  2007  96.96% Relevance  

Preview Abstract

While they already contain around half of the world’s hydrocarbon reserves, carbonate fields still exhibit lower recovery factors than clastic fields. A major explanation lies in the more complex intrinsic structure and higher chemical reactivity of carbonate rocks. Because it is linked to both the depositional and the biological environment, the genetic pore network is more complicated than in classical sandstones. Moreover; it is usually strongly reworked after deposition by superimposed diagenetic processes as well as fracturing phases. This creates levels of heterogeneity orders of magnitude higher than in clastic environments. As a result, small scale heterogeneity is often a key driver of fluid flow in carbonates. Proper, reliable modeling of this critical heterogeneity remains a pitfall often preventing efficient reservoir simulation and development.

虽然碳酸盐岩油藏大约占世界油气储量的一半,但是碳酸盐岩油藏比碎屑岩油藏表现出更低的采收率系数,。一个主要的原因是碳酸盐岩油藏有更为复杂的内部结构和较高的化学反应动力。因为碳酸盐岩油藏形成与沉积环境和生物环境密切相关,所以原生的空隙网络比典型的砂岩结构更复杂。此外,在叠加成岩过程以及裂缝形成之后还会再次发生变化,这造成了比碎屑岩环境更高数量级的非均质性。因此,非均质性弱通常是流体在碳酸盐岩中流动的关键驱动力。严格意义来说,非均质性重点在于建立可靠的油藏模型,而带有缺陷的建模方法常常会削弱油藏模拟和开发的有效性。

This paper recaps the traditional upscaling methods used for heterogeneity modeling, and highlights their limitations when applied to carbonates. It presents an innovative line of thinking to overcome these limitations, grounded on robust geological concepts and tied to core and log data. The corresponding reservoir modeling involves the dual porosity structure, not for fracture modeling, but for splitting the porous medium between the fluid portion mainly involved in pressure support and the one sweepable liable to be readily swept.
本文概述了对非均质地层建模时,在传统方法的基础上建立的创新设计,并重点突出其在碳酸盐岩应用上的局限性。联系岩心和测井数据,并以强大的地质概念做基础,提出了克服这些局限的创新思路。相对应涉及到的双重孔隙结构的储层模型,不是为了建立裂缝模型,而是为了区分多孔介质中受压力支撑的部分流体和容易被波及范围内的流体的模型建立。
This innovative workflow, coupled to smart experimental designs matching techniques, was applied to a mature carbonate field in the Middle East. It enabled to reach a first-time successful history matching, and to highlight significant additional development potential. Conceptually simple and numerically efficient, this methodology could be extended to other highly heterogeneous fields.
中东一个成熟的碳酸盐岩油田应用了这种创新的工作流程,以及配套技术下精巧实验的设计。它能第一次成功的与生产开采过程匹配,并显著增加了开发的潜力。概念简单而且数模有效,这种方法可以推广到其他非均质性高的油田中。


四.科威特Kowait
Title Waterflood Conformance Study for a Carbonate Reservoir  
碳酸盐岩的水驱适应性研究
  Author Khalaf Al Anzi, Rajendra Kumar, Tahani Al Rashidi, Kuwait Oil Company, John Cumming, Howard McKean, Calum McKie, Halliburton  
  SPE  111363-MS  2007

Preview Abstract
Mature fields of the Middle East have some of the longest production histories and richest data sets of any oilfields in the world. Waterfloods in fields that have operated for many years are reaching a stage in which better understanding of the reservoir’s response to water injection is critical for optimal field management going forward.
A common approach, however, is that existing data sets are often used only by individual technical disciplines for relatively narrow purposes, such as well performance diagnoses.
中东成熟油田拥有世界上最长的生产历史和最丰富的生产数据。进一步优化油田管理的关键在于对水驱多年的油田状态进行更好的理解认识。然而,现在普遍的做法,仅为了相对有限的目的将现有的数据用在单一的技术范围内,例如常用仅作为井的生产状态诊断。
An integrated, multidisciplinary study of a carbonate reservoir in the Minagish Field was implemented to better evaluate the conformance and integrity of current water injection operations, and make recommendations for improvement. A secondary objective was to establish a solid interdisciplinary workflow to support periodic reevaluation and update of the study.
在Minagish碳酸盐岩油田,为了对当前注水措施的适应性和完善程度更好的评估,进行了一项多重学科的综合研究,并且提出了改善意见。一个次要目的是建立一个牢固的跨学科工作流程来支持周期性的重新评估和研究更新。
A joint team of reservoir engineers and geoscientists was formed from KOC’s West Kuwait Asset Team and Halliburton’s Landmark group. Using a Common Visualization Environment (CVE) (Figure 1), the team integrated the Minagish Field history with all available static and dynamic data into a single, consistent data set.
KOC的西部科威特评估组和哈里伯顿兰德马克绘图国际公司联合油藏工程师和地球学家组成一个小组。 使用公用可视化环境(CVE) (图1),把Minagish油田所有可利用的静态和动态历史数据集成为单一兼容的数据集。
A detailed geologic model with compartmentalization and layering schemes was established which was most likely to control fluid movements within the reservoir. This was validated and a more consistent model was developed by incorporating dynamic field data. The revised model based on flow units was further validated by cross-sectional reservoir simulation models in selected areas of the field.
为了尽可能控制油藏内的流体运动,建立了一个详细的地质区域化和分层方案模型。结合动态油藏数据所开发出更加兼容的模型,被证实非常有效。在选择区域范围内根据油藏横截面模拟模型能进一步确认流动单位校正模型。
This study suggests KOC can produce the Minagish Field at significantly higher offtakes in the future without negatively impacting recovery.
这项研究认为KOC在将来可能会使Minagish油田泄油能力明显提高,不会对采收率起到负面作用。

五. 阿布扎比
Title Fracturing Mechanism and Fracture Systems Analysis of Carbonate Reservoir from Abu Dhabi - UAE  
Abu Dhabi – UAE的碳酸盐岩油藏的裂缝形成机制和裂缝体系分析 
  Author M. Sirat, SPE, Petroleum Institute, and S.M. Salman and S. Bellah, ZADCO  
  SPE  111397-MS  2007  96.96% Relevance

Preview Abstract
Many fractured carbonate reservoirs of Abu Dhabi have different structural styles and exhibit unpredicted behavior for development-production realizations. We have studied one of these reservoirs that comprise a domal structure with very gentle dipping flanks, and high fractures density. These fractures play an important role in controlling fluid flow and recovery.
阿布扎比的裂缝型碳酸盐岩储层有许多不同的构造类型,实际的生产开发过程中表现出许多意想不到的情况。对其中一个两翼缓慢倾斜的穹窿结构和高密度裂缝组成的储层进行了研究。这些裂缝在控制流体流动和采收率方面发挥重要作用。  
In this study, we present a conceptual model that explains the fracturing mechanism; formation, development and reactivations of these fractures. It also provides answers to questions about the main factors that control fracture geometries and densities with respect to reservoir structure and rock typing. Based on the available data from 2D seismics and cores examination, fracture systems identification and classification were carried out. We have also discussed the relationships between these fracture systems with curvature, faults and shear zones.
在这项研究中,我们提出了一个概念模型,解释了裂缝机理,这些裂缝的形成,发展和再生作用。控制裂缝形状和密度的主要因素,主要取决于储层结构和岩石类型。根据已知二维地震和岩心测试的数据,进行裂缝系统的识别和分类。我们还讨论了裂缝系统与弯曲,断层和剪切带之间的关系。  
We believe that fracturing mechanism is mainly controlled by reactivations of the pre-existing basement faults (structural grain), which have been reflected throughout the sedimentary cover as two main fractures systems each of which comprises three fracture sets: one extensional and two conjugate shear ones. It is evident that curvature of doming whether on the crest (convexity) or on the flanks (concavity) have no major effect on fracture densities. Instead, fracture densities increase in the vicinity of faults or shear zones. Fracture densities also increase in dolomitic layers compared to limestones and anhydrates.
我们认为,控制裂缝机理的主要是原因是原有基础断层(构造方向)的再生,这反映在沉积盖层作为两个主要的裂缝体系,每一个沉积盖层都包含三个裂缝组合:一个伸展的和两个共轭剪切的。很明显,穹窿的曲率在波峰(突起)或两翼(凹陷)对断裂密度都没有很大影响。相反,裂缝密度在断层和剪切带附近增加。与石灰岩层和脱水层比,在白云岩层的裂缝密度也有所增加。  
This new fracturing concept has a significant impact on production and recovery, where different scenarios for fractures opening/ reactivations due to the present state of stresses are presented.
这个新的裂缝概念有对开发和采收率有重要的影响,并提出由于目前压力状态不同的裂缝张开度/再生作用。
Keywords: Fractured Carbonate reservoirs; fracturing mechanism; fracture systems; Abu Dhabi; UAE

六.伊朗Iran
Title Investigation of Water-Coning Phenomenon in Iranian Carbonate Fractured Reservoirs  
伊朗裂缝性的碳酸盐岩油藏水锥现象调查

  Author M. Namani and M. Asadollahi, NIOC RIPI, and M. Haghighi, University of Tehran  
  SPE  108254-MS  2007  96.96% Relevance

Preview Abstract
The water coning caused by the imbalance between gravity and viscous forces is the most important reason for water production in different fractured reservoirs. There are various controllable and uncontrollable parameters affecting this phenomenon. In this study different dynamic models were constructed to search for the key parameters affecting the coning process in both single-well and Cartesian multi-well models.
重力和黏滞力之间的不平衡性是水锥生产的重要原因,也是不同裂缝性碳酸盐岩油藏见水的重要原因。有各种各样可控和无法控制的参数影响这种现象。在这项研究中,为了寻找影响锥进过程的关键参数,在单井和卡迪尔多井模型中建立了不同的动态模型。

It has been determined that oil layer thickness, perforation thickness, fracture permeability and its orientation, especially horizontal not vertical fracture permeability, production rate, mobility ratio, and fracture storativity have the major role in water coning phenomenon. Also it has been determined that fracture spacing, aquifer strength and skin factor have insignificant effect on water coning in fractured reservoirs. The variation of water breakthrough time respect to each effective parameter has also been studied. We concluded that for any production program or adjusting the wells location, the parameter study is very important.
油层厚度、射孔深度、裂缝渗透性和它的倾向,特别是水平的而不是垂直方向的裂缝渗透率,生产速率,流度比和裂缝储水系数对水锥现象起重要作用。另外,裂缝间距、蓄水层强度和表皮系数在裂缝型油藏中的水锥现象也起重要作用。任何一个有效的参数都和见水突破时间的变化有关联,都要进行研究。研究结论是,参数研究在所有生产规划或调整井定位的过程都非常重要。

Multi-well studies using an Iranian fractured reservoir data show that the trend of dependency of water coning on each parameter is similar to the single-well model. However, in field scale, it is necessary to have all reservoir data including well location, and production history for a successful water coning simulation because a small pressure drawdown exerted by a far well will affect the cone shape and its breakthrough time.
使用伊朗裂缝油藏多井数据研究表示,多口井中每个独立水锥参数趋势与单井的模型趋势相似。然而,在油田范围内,因为一个远处的井施加压力的轻微减少,将影响水锥形状和见水的突破时间,所以为了成功的模拟水进状况,获得所有油藏数据包括布井的位置和生产历史是必要的。

阿果石油网旗下站点:石油文库 | 石油资讯 |石油英才 | 石油供求 | 石油搜索

whreixe 2009-05-14 09:47
不错的东西 阿果石油网旗下站点:石油文库 | 石油资讯 |石油英才 | 石油供求 | 石油搜索

frac赵 2009-05-14 18:20
谢谢版主,我会继续努力的。 阿果石油网旗下站点:石油文库 | 石油资讯 |石油英才 | 石油供求 | 石油搜索

czq8 2011-05-02 07:01
SPE  118792-MS  2008 裂缝型的碳酸盐岩油藏的注蒸汽研究  


编号 阿果石油网旗下站点:石油文库 | 石油资讯 |石油英才 | 石油供求 | 石油搜索

bowen0112 2011-05-11 07:49
看看了 阿果石油网旗下站点:石油文库 | 石油资讯 |石油英才 | 石油供求 | 石油搜索

sxh1688 2011-05-13 09:44
好的,不错的资料!谢谢版主的分享,学习了! 阿果石油网旗下站点:石油文库 | 石油资讯 |石油英才 | 石油供求 | 石油搜索

czq8 2012-02-22 04:43
很不错的译文,谢谢分享 阿果石油网旗下站点:石油文库 | 石油资讯 |石油英才 | 石油供求 | 石油搜索


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